Banat Mountains are the southern subdivision of the Western Carpathians. They are bordered by the Danube Gorge to the south, the Timis-Cerna corridor to the east, Lugoj Plain to the north and a range of hills to the west.
The mountain landscape is dominated by coniferous forests.
The average height is below 1,000 m, with the highest peaks in Semenic Mountains (Piatra Gozna Peak) and Almaj Mountains (Svinecea Mare Peak). The geology of the Banat Mountains consists predominantly of crystalline schist in combination with limestone, flysch and volcanic rocks.
The karst landscape formed by limestone rocks is characterized by caves (Comarnic cave), gorges (Minis, Nera, Caras gorges), underground drainage systems, karst springs, dry valleys. The flysch gives rise to structural landforms, while the action of crystalline schists results in erosion platforms, lower in elevation than in the Southern Carpathians. There is a range of hills to the west and north of the Banat Mountains, composed of quasi-horizontal sedimentary rock layers (submarine and coastal deposits from the Pliocene) and piedmont gravel and sand deposits. The center is dominated by the higher Semenic Mountains, with wider ridge platforms and deep valleys. The source of Barzava, Nera and Timis rivers is an ancient region of permanent highland settlements. Unlike the Semenic Mountains, composed of crystalline schist, Anina Mountains, located further to the west, have a very complicated structure and petrography, where limestone rocks cover large areas and give rise to representative landforms. Almaj (Bozovici) Depression lies to the south of the Semenic-Anina mountain region, along Nera Valley, with the higher and more spectacular Almaj Mountains in its southern part, bordering the Danube. The limestone strip continues with Locva Mountains and Nera Gorge at the intersection with Nera Valley. To the northwest, the Banat Mountains stretch beyond Caras-Ezeris Depression (along Caras River valley), with the lower Dognecea Mountains (615 m) “drowned” in sediments.
The region has a temperate climate with Mediterranean influences.