The Rodna Mountains are part of the northern section of the Eastern Carpathians, with a maximum height of 2,303 meters, Pietrosul Rodnei Peak, being the highest and most difficult to cross of all the massifs in the Eastern Carpathians.
The main ridge, 50 km long and 30-40 km wide, with an east-west orientation, is steep to the north and gentle to the south.
The massif appears as a horst composed of crystalline schist, with steep faults: Dragos Voda (north) and Rodna (south). Of all the massifs in the Eastern Carpathians, traces of Quaternary glaciers are best preserved in Rodna Mountains. There are many glacial corries (Ineu – Lala, Negoiescu, Iezer,Buhaescu, Izvorul Cailor, Puzdrele, etc.), gorges (Bistricioara Gorge, Stramba, Rebra, Cormoaia gorges, Prislop Pass, etc.), waterfalls (Cailor Falls, with a vertical drop of 80 m – the highest in the country, the main section being over 16 m high, Guset, Cormoaia, Anies, Puzdrele – at an elevation of 1,520 m).
There is also a great number of caves in Rodna Mountains, the most representative being: Izvorul Tausoarelor Cave, over 16 km long, Maglei cave, Zalion’s Trough (2,121 m long and 226 m deep, with a 44 m-deep pothole as an entrance, 3 m in diameter), Fairies cave (4,368 m long, with the greatest number of galleries in Romania), Iza’s Blue Spring cave (2,500 m long), Schneider’s Bath cave (430 m long, located at an elevation of over 1,500 m).
The Rodna National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Carpathians, with an area of 47,227 hectares, of which 3,300 hectares were declared a biosphere reserve in 1979.